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A History of Science — Volume 3
BOOK III CHAPTER I. THE SUCCESSORS OF NEWTON IN ASTRONOMY The work of Johannes HeveliusHalley and HeveliusHalley's observation of the transit of Mercury, and his method of determining the parallax of the planetsHalley's observation of meteorsHis inability to explain these bodiesThe important work of James BradleyLacaille's measurement of the arc of the meridianThe determination of the question as to the exact shape of the earthD'Alembert and his influence upon scienceDelambre's History of AstronomyThe astronomical work of Euler. CHAPTER II. THE PROGRESS OF MODERN ASTRONOMY The work of William HerschelHis discovery of UranusHis discovery that the stars are sunsHis conception of the universeHis deduction that gravitation has caused the grouping of the heavenly bodiesThe nebula, hypothesis,Immanuel Kant's conception of the formation of the worldDefects in Kant's conceptionLaplace's final solution of the problemHis explanation in detailChange in the mental attitude of the world since BrunoAsteroids and satellitesDiscoveries of OlberslThe mathematical calculations of Adams and LeverrierThe discovery of the inner ring of SaturnClerk Maxwell's paper on the stability of Saturn's ringsHelmholtz's conception of the action of tidal frictionProfessor G. H. Darwin's estimate of the consequences of tidal actionComets and meteorsBredichin's cometary theoryThe final solution of the structure of cometsNewcomb's estimate of the amount of cometary dust swept up daily by the earthThe fixed starsJohn Herschel's studies of double starsFraunhofer's perfection of the refracting telescopeBessel's measurement of the parallax of a star,Henderson's measurementsKirchhoff and Bunsen's perfection of the spectroscopeWonderful revelations of the spectroscopeLord Kelvin's estimate of the time that will be required for the earth to become completely cooledAlvan Clark's discovery of the companion star of SiriusThe advent of the photographic film in astronomyDr. Huggins's studies of nebulaeSir Norman Lockyer's "cosmogonic guess,"Croll's pre-nebular theory. CHAPTER III. THE NEW SCIENCE OF PALEONTOLOGY William Smith and fossil shellsHis discovery that fossil rocks are arranged in regular systemsSmith's inquiries taken up by CuvierHis Ossements Fossiles containing the first description of hairy elephantHis contention that fossils represent extinct species onlyDr. Buckland's studies of English fossil-bedsCharles Lyell combats catastrophism,Elaboration of his ideas with reference to the rotation of speciesThe establishment of the doctrine of uniformitarianism,Darwin's Origin of SpeciesFossil manDr. Falconer's visit to the fossil-beds in the valley of the SommeInvestigations of Prestwich and Sir John EvansDiscovery of the Neanderthal skull,Cuvier's rejection of human fossilsThe finding of prehistoric carving on ivoryThe fossil-beds of AmericaProfessor Marsh's paper on the fossil horses in AmericaThe Warren mastodon,The Java fossil, Pithecanthropus Erectus. CHAPTER IV. THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN GEOLOGY James Hutton and the study of the rocksHis theory of the earthHis belief in volcanic cataclysms in raising and forming the continentsHis famous paper before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1781-His conclusions that all strata of the earth have their origin at the bottom of the sea-His deduction that heated and expanded matter caused the elevation of land above the sea-levelIndifference at first shown this remarkable paperNeptunists versus PlutonistsScrope's classical work on volcanoesFinal acceptance of Hutton's explanation of the origin of granitesLyell and uniformitarianismObservations on the gradual elevation of the coast-lines of Sweden and PatagoniaObservations on the enormous amount of land erosion constantly taking place,Agassiz and the glacial theoryPerraudin the chamois-hunter, and his explanation of perched bowldersDe Charpentier's acceptance of Perraudin's explanationAgassiz's paper on his Alpine studiesHis conclusion that the Alps were once covered with an ice-sheetFinal acceptance of the glacial theoryThe geological agesThe work of Murchison and SedgwickFormation of the American continentsPast, present, and future. CHAPTER V. THE NEW SCIENCE OF METEOROLOGY Biot's investigations of meteorsThe observations of Brandes and Benzenberg on the velocity of falling starsProfessor Olmstead's observations on the meteoric shower of 1833Confirmation of Chladni's hypothesis of 1794The aurora borealisFranklin's suggestion that it is of electrical originIts close association with terrestrial magnetismEvaporation, cloud-formation, and dewDalton's demonstration that water exists in the air as an independent gasHutton's theory of rainLuke Howard's paper on cloudsObservations on dew, by Professor Wilson and Mr. SixDr. Wells's essay on dewHis observations on several appearances connected with dewIsotherms and ocean currentsHumboldt and the-science of comparative climatologyHis studies of ocean currentsMaury's theory that gravity is the cause of ocean currentsDr. Croll on Climate and TimeCyclones and anti-cyclones,Dove's studies in climatologyProfessor Ferrel's mathematical law of the deflection of windsTyndall's estimate of the amount of heat given off by the liberation of a pound of vaporMeteorological observations and weather predictions. CHAPTER VI. MODERN THEORIES OF HEAT AND LIGHT Josiah Wedgwood and the clay pyrometerCount Rumford and the vibratory theory of heatHis experiments with boring cannon to determine the nature of heatCausing water to boil by the friction of the borerHis final determination that heat is a form of motionThomas Young and the wave theory of lightHis paper on the theory of light and colorsHis exposition of the colors of thin platesOf the colors of thick plates, and of striated surfaces,Arago and Fresnel champion the wave theoryopposition to the theory by BiotThe French Academy's tacit acceptance of the correctness of the theory by its admission of Fresnel as a member. CHAPTER VII. THE MODERN DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM Galvani and the beginning of modern electricityThe construction of the voltaic pileNicholson's and Carlisle's discovery that the galvanic current decomposes waterDecomposition of various substances by Sir Humphry DavyHis construction of an arc-lightThe deflection of the magnetic needle by electricity demonstrated by OerstedEffect of this important discoveryAmpere creates the science of electro-dynamicsJoseph Henry's studies of electromagnetsMichael Faraday begins his studies of electromagnetic inductionHis famous paper before the Royal Society, in 1831, in which he demonstrates electro-magnetic inductionHis explanation of Arago's rotating diskThe search for a satisfactory method of storing electricityRoentgen rays, or X-rays. CHAPTER VIII. THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Faraday narrowly misses the discovery of the doctrine of conservationCarnot's belief that a definite quantity of work can be transformed into a definite quantity of heatThe work of James Prescott JouleInvestigations begun by Dr. MayerMayer's paper of 1842His statement of the law of the conservation of energyMayer and HelmholtzJoule's paper of 1843Joule or MayerLord Kelvin and the dissipation of energy-The final unification. CHAPTER IX. THE ETHER AND PONDERABLE MATTER James Clerk-Maxwell's conception of etherThomas Young and "Luminiferous ether,"Young's and Fresnel's conception of transverse luminiferous undulationsFaraday's experiments pointing to the existence of etherProfessor Lodge's suggestion of two ethersLord Kelvin's calculation of the probable density of etherThe vortex theory of atomsHelmholtz's calculations in vortex motionsProfessor Tait's apparatus for creating vortex rings in the air-The ultimate constitution of matter as conceived by BoscovichDavy's speculations as to the changes that occur in the substance of matter at different temperaturesClausius's and Maxwell's investigations of the kinetic theory of gasesLord Kelvin's estimate of the size of the moleculeStudies of the potential energy of moleculesAction of gases at low temperatures. APPENDIX ......Buy Now (To Read More)
Ebook Number: 1707
Author: Williams, Edward Huntington
Release Date: Apr 1, 1999
Contributor (Author): Williams, Henry Smith, 1863-1943
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