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Vie de Jésus
Une histoire des Origines du Christianisme devrait embrasser toute la priode obscure, et, si j'ose le dire, souterraine, qui s'tend depuis les premiers commencements de cette religion jusqu'au moment o son existence devient un fait public, notoire, vident aux yeux de tous. Une telle histoire se composerait de quatre livres. Le premier, que je prsente aujourd'hui au public, traite du fait mme qui a servi de point de dpart au culte nouveau; il est rempli tout entier par la personne sublime du fondateur. Le second traiterait des aptres et de leurs disciples immdiats, ou, pour mieux dire, des rvolutions que subit la pense religieuse dans les deux premires gnrations chrtiennes. Je l'arrterais vers l'an 100, au moment o les derniers amis de Jsus sont morts, et o tous les livres du Nouveau Testament sont peu prs fixs dans la forme o nous les lisons. Le troisime exposerait l'tat du christianisme sous les Antonins. On l'y verrait se dvelopper lentement et soutenir une guerre presque permanente contre l'empire, lequel, arriv ce moment au plus haut degr de la perfection administrative et gouvern par des philosophes, combat dans la secte naissante une socit secrte et thocratique, qui le nie obstinment et le mine sans cesse. Ce livre contiendrait toute l'tendue du IIe sicle. Le quatrime livre, enfin, montrerait les progrs dcisifs que fait le christianisme partir des empereurs syriens. On y verrait la savante construction des Antonins crouler, la dcadence de la civilisation antique devenir irrvocable, le christianisme profiter de sa ruine, la Syrie conqurir tout l'Occident, et Jsus, en compagnie des dieux et des sages diviniss de l'Asie, prendre possession d'une socit laquelle la philosophie et l'tat purement civil ne suffisent plus. C'est alors que les ides religieuses des races groupes autour de la Mditerrane se modifient profondment; que les cultes orientaux prennent partout le dessus; que le christianisme, devenu une glise trs-nombreuse, oublie totalement ses rves millnaires, brise ses dernires attaches avec le judasme et passe tout entier dans le monde grec et latin. Les luttes et le travail littraire du IIIe sicle, lesquels se passent dj au grand jour, ne seraient exposs qu'en traits gnraux. Je raconterais encore plus sommairement les perscutions du commencement du IVe sicle, dernier effort de l'empire pour revenir ses vieux principes, lesquels dniaient l'association religieuse toute place dans l'tat. Enfin, je me bornerais pressentir le changement de politique qui, sous Constantin, intervertit les rles, et fait du mouvement religieux le plus libre et le plus spontan un culte officiel, assujetti l'tat et perscuteur son tour. Je ne sais si j'aurai assez de vie et de force pour remplir un plan aussi vaste. Je serai satisfait si, aprs avoir crit la vie de Jsus, il m'est donn de raconter comme je l'entends l'histoire des aptres, l'tat de la conscience chrtienne durant les semaines qui suivirent la mort de Jsus, la formation du cycle lgendaire de la rsurrection, les premiers actes de l'glise de Jrusalem, la vie de saint Paul, la crise du temps de Nron, l'apparition de l'Apocalypse, la ruine de Jrusalem, la fondation des chrtients hbraques de la Batane, la rdaction des vangiles, l'origine des grandes coles de l'Asie-Mineure, issues de Jean. Tout plit ct de ce merveilleux premier sicle. Par une singularit rare en l'histoire, nous voyons bien mieux ce qui s'est pass dans le monde chrtien de l'an 50 l'an 75, que de l'an 100 l'an 150. Le plan suivi pour cette histoire a empch d'introduire dans le texte de longues dissertations critiques sur les points controverss. Un systme continu de notes met le lecteur mme de vrifier d'aprs les sources toutes les propositions du texte. Dans ces notes, on s'est born strictement aux citations de premire main, je veux dire l'indication des passages originaux sur lesquels chaque assertion ou chaque conjecture s'appuie. Je sais que pour les personnes peu inities ces sortes d'tudes, bien d'autres dveloppements eussent t ncessaires. Mais je n'ai pas l'habitude de refaire ce qui est fait et bien fait. Pour ne citer que des livres crits en franais, les personnes qui voudront bien se procurer les ouvrages suivants: ......Buy Now (To Read More)
Ebook Number: 15113
Author: Renan, Ernest
Release Date: Feb 20, 2005
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