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Introduction à l'étude de la médecine expérimentale
Title: Introduction l'tude de la mdecine exprimentale Author: Claude Bernard Release Date: July 7, 2005 [EBook #16234] Language: French This Etext was prepared by Distributed Proofreaders EU - Mireille Harmelin et Michel Arotcarena - Ebooks libres et gratuits - Jean-Claude, Fred et Coolmicro. Claude Bernard (1865) Table des matires PREMIRE PARTIE DU RAISONNEMENT EXPRIMENTAL. CHAPITRE PREMIER DE L'OBSERVATION ET DE L'EXPRIENCE. I. Dfinitions diverses de l'observation et de l'exprience. II. Acqurir de l'exprience et s'appuyer sur l'observation est autre chose que faire des expriences et faire des observations. III. De l'investigateur; de la recherche scientifique. IV. De l'observateur et de l'exprimentateur; des sciences d'observation et d'exprimentation. V. L'exprience n'est au fond qu'une observation provoque. VI. Dans le raisonnement exprimental, l'exprimentateur ne se spare pas de l'observation. CHAPITRE II DE L'IDE A PRIORI ET DU DOUTE DANS LE RAISONNEMENT EXPRIMENTAL. I. Les vrits exprimentales sont objectives ou extrieures. II. L'intuition ou le sentiment engendre l'ide exprimentale. III. L'exprimentateur doit douter, fuir les ides fixes et garder toujours sa libert d'esprit. IV. Caractre indpendant de la mthode exprimentale. V. De l'induction et de la dduction dans le raisonnement exprimental. VI. Du doute dans le raisonnement exprimental. VII. Du principe du criterium exprimental. VIII. De la preuve et de la contre-preuve. DEUXIME PARTIE DE L'EXPRIMENTATION CHEZ LES TRES VIVANTS. CHAPITRE PREMIER CONSIDRATIONS EXPRIMENTALES COMMUNES AUX TRES VIVANTS ET AUX CORPS BRUTS. I. La spontanit des corps vivants ne s'oppose pas l'emploi de l'exprimentation. II. Les manifestations des proprits des corps vivants sont lies l'existence de certains phnomnes physico-chimiques qui en rglent l'apparition. III. Les phnomnes physiologiques des organismes suprieurs se passent dans des milieux organiques intrieurs perfectionns et dous de proprits physico-chimiques constantes. IV. Le but de l'exprimentation est le mme dans l'tude des phnomnes des corps vivants et dans l'tude des phnomnes des corps bruts. V. Il y a un dterminisme absolu dans les conditions d'existence des phnomnes naturels, aussi bien dans les corps vivants que dans les corps bruts. VI. Pour arriver au dterminisme des phnomnes dans les sciences biologiques comme dans les sciences physico-chimiques, il faut ramener les phnomnes des conditions exprimentales dfinies et aussi simples que possible. VII. Dans les corps vivants de mme que dans les corps bruts, les phnomnes ont toujours une double condition d'existence. VIII. Dans les sciences biologiques comme dans les sciences physico-chimiques, le dterminisme est possible, parce que, dans les corps vivants comme dans les corps bruts, la matire ne peut avoir aucune spontanit. IX. La limite de nos connaissances est la mme dans les phnomnes des corps vivants et dans les phnomnes des corps bruts. X. Dans les sciences des corps vivants comme dans celles des corps bruts, l'exprimentateur ne cre rien; il ne fait qu'obir aux lois de la nature. CHAPITRE II CONSIDRATIONS EXPRIMENTALES SPCIALES AUX TRES VIVANTS. I. Dans l'organisme des tres vivants, il y a considrer un ensemble harmonique des phnomnes. II. De la pratique exprimentale sur les tres vivants. III. De la vivisection. IV. De l'anatomie normale dans ses rapports avec la vivisection. V. De l'anatomie pathologique et des sections cadavriques dans leurs rapports avec la vivisection. VI. De la diversit des animaux soumis l'exprimentation; de la variabilit des conditions organiques dans lesquelles ils s'offrent l'exprimentateur. VII. Du choix des animaux; de l'utilit que l'on peut tirer pour la mdecine des expriences faites sur les diverses espces animales. VIII. De la comparaison des animaux et l'exprimentation comparative. IX. De l'emploi du calcul dans l'tude des phnomnes des tres vivants; des moyennes et de la statistique. X. Du laboratoire du physiologiste et de divers moyens ncessaires l'tude de la mdecine exprimentale. TROISIME PARTIE APPLICATIONS DE LA MTHODE EXPRIMENTALE L'TUDE DES PHNOMNES DE LA VIE. CHAPITRE PREMIER EXEMPLES D'INVESTIGATION EXPRIMENTALE PHYSIOLOGIQUE. I. Une recherche exprimentale a pour point de dpart une observation. II. Une recherche exprimentale a pour point de dpart une hypothse ou une thorie. CHAPITRE II EXEMPLES DE CRITIQUE EXPRIMENTALE PHYSIOLOGIQUE. I. Le principe du dterminisme exprimental n'admet pas des faits contradictoires. II Le principe du dterminisme repousse de la science les faits indtermins ou irrationnels. III. Le principe du dterminisme exige que les faits soient comparativement dtermins. IV. La critique exprimentale ne doit porter que sur des faits et jamais sur des mots. CHAPITRE III. DE L'INVESTIGATION ET DE LA CRITIQUE APPLIQUES LA MDECINE EXPRIMENTALE. I. De l'investigation pathologique et thrapeutique. II. De la critique exprimentale pathologique et thrapeutique. CHAPITRE IV. DES OBSTACLES PHILOSOPHIQUES QUE RENCONTRE LA MDECINE EXPRIMENTALE. I. De la fausse application de la physiologie la mdecine. II. L'ignorance scientifique et certaines illusions de l'esprit mdical sont un obstacle au dveloppement de la mdecine exprimentale. III. La mdecine empirique et la mdecine exprimentale ne sont point incompatibles; elles doivent tre au contraire insparables l'une de l'autre. IV. La mdecine exprimentale ne rpond aucune doctrine mdicale ni aucun systme philosophique. ......Buy Now (To Read More)
Ebook Number: 16234
Author: Bernard, Claude
Release Date: Jul 7, 2005
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