Introduction à l'étude de la médecine expérimentaleTitle: Introduction l'tude de la mdecine exprimentale Author: Claude Bernard Release Date: July 7, 2005 [EBook #16234] Language: French This Etext was prepared by...


100% MONEY


Introduction à l'étude de la médecine expérimentale

Title: Introduction l'tude de la mdecine exprimentale Author: Claude Bernard Release Date: July 7, 2005 [EBook #16234] Language: French This Etext was prepared by Distributed Proofreaders EU - Mireille Harmelin et Michel Arotcarena - Ebooks libres et gratuits - Jean-Claude, Fred et Coolmicro. Claude Bernard (1865) Table des matires PREMIRE PARTIE DU RAISONNEMENT EXPRIMENTAL. CHAPITRE PREMIER DE L'OBSERVATION ET DE L'EXPRIENCE. I. Dfinitions diverses de l'observation et de l'exprience. II. Acqurir de l'exprience et s'appuyer sur l'observation est autre chose que faire des expriences et faire des observations. III. De l'investigateur; de la recherche scientifique. IV. De l'observateur et de l'exprimentateur; des sciences d'observation et d'exprimentation. V. L'exprience n'est au fond qu'une observation provoque. VI. Dans le raisonnement exprimental, l'exprimentateur ne se spare pas de l'observation. CHAPITRE II DE L'IDE A PRIORI ET DU DOUTE DANS LE RAISONNEMENT EXPRIMENTAL. I. Les vrits exprimentales sont objectives ou extrieures. II. L'intuition ou le sentiment engendre l'ide exprimentale. III. L'exprimentateur doit douter, fuir les ides fixes et garder toujours sa libert d'esprit. IV. Caractre indpendant de la mthode exprimentale. V. De l'induction et de la dduction dans le raisonnement exprimental. VI. Du doute dans le raisonnement exprimental. VII. Du principe du criterium exprimental. VIII. De la preuve et de la contre-preuve. DEUXIME PARTIE DE L'EXPRIMENTATION CHEZ LES TRES VIVANTS. CHAPITRE PREMIER CONSIDRATIONS EXPRIMENTALES COMMUNES AUX TRES VIVANTS ET AUX CORPS BRUTS. I. La spontanit des corps vivants ne s'oppose pas l'emploi de l'exprimentation. II. Les manifestations des proprits des corps vivants sont lies l'existence de certains phnomnes physico-chimiques qui en rglent l'apparition. III. Les phnomnes physiologiques des organismes suprieurs se passent dans des milieux organiques intrieurs perfectionns et dous de proprits physico-chimiques constantes. IV. Le but de l'exprimentation est le mme dans l'tude des phnomnes des corps vivants et dans l'tude des phnomnes des corps bruts. V. Il y a un dterminisme absolu dans les conditions d'existence des phnomnes naturels, aussi bien dans les corps vivants que dans les corps bruts. VI. Pour arriver au dterminisme des phnomnes dans les sciences biologiques comme dans les sciences physico-chimiques, il faut ramener les phnomnes des conditions exprimentales dfinies et aussi simples que possible. VII. Dans les corps vivants de mme que dans les corps bruts, les phnomnes ont toujours une double condition d'existence. VIII. Dans les sciences biologiques comme dans les sciences physico-chimiques, le dterminisme est possible, parce que, dans les corps vivants comme dans les corps bruts, la matire ne peut avoir aucune spontanit. IX. La limite de nos connaissances est la mme dans les phnomnes des corps vivants et dans les phnomnes des corps bruts. X. Dans les sciences des corps vivants comme dans celles des corps bruts, l'exprimentateur ne cre rien; il ne fait qu'obir aux lois de la nature. CHAPITRE II CONSIDRATIONS EXPRIMENTALES SPCIALES AUX TRES VIVANTS. I. Dans l'organisme des tres vivants, il y a considrer un ensemble harmonique des phnomnes. II. De la pratique exprimentale sur les tres vivants. III. De la vivisection. IV. De l'anatomie normale dans ses rapports avec la vivisection. V. De l'anatomie pathologique et des sections cadavriques dans leurs rapports avec la vivisection. VI. De la diversit des animaux soumis l'exprimentation; de la variabilit des conditions organiques dans lesquelles ils s'offrent l'exprimentateur. VII. Du choix des animaux; de l'utilit que l'on peut tirer pour la mdecine des expriences faites sur les diverses espces animales. VIII. De la comparaison des animaux et l'exprimentation comparative. IX. De l'emploi du calcul dans l'tude des phnomnes des tres vivants; des moyennes et de la statistique. X. Du laboratoire du physiologiste et de divers moyens ncessaires l'tude de la mdecine exprimentale. TROISIME PARTIE APPLICATIONS DE LA MTHODE EXPRIMENTALE L'TUDE DES PHNOMNES DE LA VIE. CHAPITRE PREMIER EXEMPLES D'INVESTIGATION EXPRIMENTALE PHYSIOLOGIQUE. I. Une recherche exprimentale a pour point de dpart une observation. II. Une recherche exprimentale a pour point de dpart une hypothse ou une thorie. CHAPITRE II EXEMPLES DE CRITIQUE EXPRIMENTALE PHYSIOLOGIQUE. I. Le principe du dterminisme exprimental n'admet pas des faits contradictoires. II Le principe du dterminisme repousse de la science les faits indtermins ou irrationnels. III. Le principe du dterminisme exige que les faits soient comparativement dtermins. IV. La critique exprimentale ne doit porter que sur des faits et jamais sur des mots. CHAPITRE III. DE L'INVESTIGATION ET DE LA CRITIQUE APPLIQUES LA MDECINE EXPRIMENTALE. I. De l'investigation pathologique et thrapeutique. II. De la critique exprimentale pathologique et thrapeutique. CHAPITRE IV. DES OBSTACLES PHILOSOPHIQUES QUE RENCONTRE LA MDECINE EXPRIMENTALE. I. De la fausse application de la physiologie la mdecine. II. L'ignorance scientifique et certaines illusions de l'esprit mdical sont un obstacle au dveloppement de la mdecine exprimentale. III. La mdecine empirique et la mdecine exprimentale ne sont point incompatibles; elles doivent tre au contraire insparables l'une de l'autre. IV. La mdecine exprimentale ne rpond aucune doctrine mdicale ni aucun systme philosophique. ......Buy Now (To Read More)

Product details

Ebook Number: 16234
Author: Bernard, Claude
Release Date: Jul 7, 2005
Format: eBook
Language: French

In stock at the Booksdeli Warehouse:

Items that are in stock at the Booksdeli Warehouse will state, 'Ships in 1-2 business days'. There will also be a red 'in stock' on the product information page of the individual title that will indicate if the title is actually in stock. Occasionally stock runs out before the website is updated and you will be notified if you have been affected. Please note that if your order is placed during a "sale" period, dispatch time for 'in stock' items can be delayed due to increased volume of orders.

Items not in stock at the Booksdeli Warehouse:

Items that are NOT in stock at the Booksdeli Warehouse will need to be ordered from the supplier. Any title that does NOT feature a red 'in stock' star on the product information page of the individual title will need to be ordered from the supplier.

With 1 million titles listed on our website we are not able to keep stock of all titles, and the title you are seeking may have to be ordered from an Australian, UK, USA or other country supplier. Each item you order may have different delivery expectations depending on availability. Please also note that to offer the widest range of items online we rely on information provided by the publishers and distributors. Our website is updated regularly but titles can and do sometimes become temporarily unavailable whilst reprinting, or they may go out of print without prior notice from the publisher. If an item in your order is affected then Booksdeli staff will contact you via the email or message centre in your Booksdeli account to inform you of the delay and your order will be updated with the relevant information. You will receive an email asking you to log into your Booksdeli account because your order has been updated.

How long will it take to deliver this title to you?

  • After you place your order we will research where best to source this title.
  • You will be sent an email once your order has been processed requesting you to log in to your account to inform you of the delivery expectations of your order.
  • If delivery times are not suitable then you have 1 business day to contact Booksdeli to discuss faster delivery options. If Booksdeli is unable to fast track the delivery of this title for you then you have the option to cancel for a full refund. After 1 business day your order is a firm sale.

Delivery Expectations:

  • eBooks and Gift Certificates are delivered instantly.
  • Most of Booksdeli's titles are dispatched from our warehouse within 6 to 24 business days.
  • Booksdeli specialise in titles that are difficult to source. For example, University or Academic texts, older hardcover editions, or titles on very specific subjects, etc and these may take 16 to 30 business days to ship to you as they are not titles that suppliers keep readily available and need to be specifically ordered in.
  • Extremely specialised titles (i.e. indent titles) or titles waiting for a reprint can take 6 weeks to 4 months to source from suppliers around the world. Indent titles are firm sale and cannot be cancelled or returned.
  • Some titles are yet to be published so please pay attention to the publisher's predicted publish date when ordering and MORE IMPORTANTLY please check if there are other editions that are already published.

In all instances we will notify you of delivery times for each title with the information we have at the time of processing your order as discussed above. Please also add the appropriate number of days it may take for Australia Post or other preferred shipping companies for Australian orders or FedEx or other preferred shipping companies for international orders to deliver to you from Australian warehouses or from suppliers.

See Average Delivery Times in our SHIPPING & DELIVERY INFORMATION SECTION in the Help Centre for average delivery times from Australian warehouses.

Stock on hand at the Booksdeli warehouse will be shipped the next business day if there are no other items that are waiting for delivery from Booksdeli suppliers. Please note that if your order is placed during a "sale" period, dispatch time for 'in stock' items can be delayed due to increased volume of orders.

If items are not readily available then our Order Processing Team will endeavour to contact you via the email or message centre in your Booksdeli account to discuss the time frame for these items.

Items that are Pre-Orders will be ordered automatically unless the listed publication date changes.

How will I know if my order has been dispatched?

An automated 'shipped' email will be sent once your order has been dispatched from our warehouse. 

Insufficient and/or incorrect delivery information:

*** Address changes and/or corrections made through your Booksdeli Account will only affect future orders placed after the changes and/or corrections are made. Any changes and/or corrections for current orders must be done by contacting the Booksdeli Customer Care Team as soon as possible.***

(Don't forget to update your account for future orders after emailing Booksdeli)

Customers who enter addresses that Australia Post or any other shipping company have deemed having incorrect and/or insufficient details to ensure delivery may result in the following:

  • Delayed delivery
  • Lost parcel
  • Package/s returned to the Booksdeli Warehouse

If Booksdeli is found to be responsible for incorrectly addressing a package then Booksdeli will be responsible for the resending, replacement or refund of the items not delivered or delayed.

Any package returned to Booksdeli due to the above incorrect and/or insufficient information will require an extra delivery charge i.e. $8 for shipping the package again. Also, if Booksdeli has incurred extra fees to retrieve the package from Australia Post and other shipping companies then these charges will also be borne by the customer before the package can be despatched again.

If a package arrives back to the Booksdeli Warehouse due to the above incorrect and/or insufficient delivery issues and incurs damage to the item(s), Booksdeli will not be responsible for replacing the goods but will make every effort to add extra protection to resend the package once the extra delivery fee payments have been made.

If customers prefer a replacement, then they can elect to have them reordered and will be charged the RRP less 30% plus $8 shipping (stock permitting). If stock is no longer available at the same price at the time of ordering then Booksdeli will not be required to find a replacement or refund or store credit.

If a customer prefers not to receive the items as their requirements have changed then no refund or store credit will be provided due to "incorrect and/or insufficient address" details.

Any shipment that is delayed or lost and is found to have had incorrect and/or insufficient details provided by the customer will not be covered by Booksdeli. NO REFUNDS and NO STORE CREDITS are applicable.

If the package has the correct delivery information and is 'lost' by Australia Post or other preferred delivery company, Booksdeli will replace the items only after you have checked with your local Post Office as per the information in the Help Centre section of the website or, issue a store credit if the replacement copies will not arrive in time. If Booksdeli is unable to source a replacement copy due to the title no longer being available for whatever reason, a refund will be processed for the unavailable title. You must contact Booksdeli within six (6) weeks of receiving the automated 'shipping' email if your package has not arrived otherwise no store credit or refund (if applicable) will be available.

Mail redirections:

Customers please note that many of our Booksdeli customers inform us that their Australia Post Redirections and other shipping companies’ redirections do not work with packages. Booksdeli will not be responsible for replacing goods or extra costs if a redirection has not been successful. Please contact Customer Service before you move to ensure a current order has the updated details to minimize delays.

Please see our INSUFFICIENT AND/OR INCORRECT DELIVERY INFORMATION section in the Help Centre for more details and how to avoid errors in placing your order.

Orders with multiple items:

Customers with more than one item may be sent their items in multiple shipments. Booksdeli holds onto items for up to 2 hours after the first item has been allocated to the order to include as many items in one shipment as possible. Customers shipping to addresses in Australia pay a one off fee of $8 for as many shipments required per order. If you require items to be sent before the above time frame, an additional postage charge of $8 will apply. You can request items to be sent sooner by contacting the Booksdeli Customer Care Team. Overseas orders see below.

Overseas Orders:

All overseas orders are consolidated to one delivery.

If a Fed-Ex/UPS service or our preferred delivery service does not deliver to your specified address we reserve the right to cancel your order before it is processed.

Orders over the value of AUD$900 being delivered to all other countries will be liable for customs charges, taxes including GST and brokerage costs. These charges are the responsibility of the recipient and Booksdeli will not reimburse customers for these import costs or provide a refund or credit for any order if a customer refuses to pay them. Please contact our Customer Service Team to discuss what arrangements may be possible for your order.

All orders with an overseas delivery address are firm sale and a store credit or refund is not available. Note that this does not apply to Damaged or Faulty Items - see our Returns section of the Help Centre.

Completion of an order & outstanding items:

An order will be complete when either of the following occurs (i) all items were sent and delivered (ii) the order has been cancelled during the cooling-off period (iii) the customer nominated to pay by cheque, money order or bank transfer and the monies were never received by Booksdeli within 60 days of the date of the order and the unprocessed order was cancelled (iv) the customer received some items but nominated to get a credit or refund for the remaining amount (v) Booksdeli could not charge the credit card and the unprocessed order was cancelled (vi) the remaining items that are yet to be delivered in the order are no longer in print or available through Booksdeli's suppliers any more (vii) more than 120 days have passed since monies have been received on an order and Booksdeli was unable to source the title(s) and if so then the customer will receive a refund for the amount of the cancelled item, unless the customer wishes to wait longer for such title to become available. The ONLY exception applies to items Pre-Orders where the 120 days commences from the publish date.

Privacy Policy:

Booksdeli Pty Ltd keeps all personal information submitted in the strictest confidence. The information is kept on a secure server and is only used to process orders from Booksdeli. This information will not be released to anyone other than necessary to fulfill your order. In some instances Booksdeli Pty Ltd's suppliers will fulfill directly to you, the customer, to improve delivery times and your contact information is kept in the strictest confidence. We will not rent or sell your personal information to any third party outside of Booksdeli Pty Ltd without your permission.

Third-Party Service Providers: Booksdeli uses Australia Post, UPS, FedEx, and Spring Global Mail and other delivery companies to deliver packages. Booksdeli may provide these companies your details including emails and contact number ONLY to provide customers up to date delivery tracking of dispatched orders.